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In a battle between Nitro and the New Warriors, Nitro exploded, seemingly killing the entire team and a huge number of civilians (including 60 school children nearby).
This led the United States government to introduce a "Living Weapon of Mass Destruction" registry for all super-powered individuals.
Most heroes were divided on the issue, and a Civil War ensued.
The Superhuman Registration Act had been a long time in the making.
From now on, they would protect its residents, and the capekillers' presence would not be tolerated. The man once known as Quicksilver had lost his speed powers during the Decimation event, but had gained new powers by inhaling the Inhumans' Terrigen Mists. had also intervened, and a team including Wolverine was sent to capture him.
He now has the ability to restore lost powers to former mutants, though doing so usually ended badly for the recipient of his "gift". Predictably, he incinerated everything within a wide radius of the cabin.
The Warriors were at the time the focus of a reality TV show, and although a number of them felt that the villains were out of their league, the network and others in the group thought it would be great for ratings. So, Cap's actions in that case were in self-defense. He gathered his own pro-registration heroes to bring in Captain America's group and other non-registered combatants.
Numerous members of the superhero community arrived on the scene to search for survivors. The inactive New Warriors were widely regarded as "baby killers" by association. He felt that heroes needed to be above direct government control, because when politicians could control the heroes, they could decide who the villains were. Even Stark unmasked himself as Iron Man (for the second time in his career), and admitted to previous attempts to hide his identity.
Hindsight, desperate to distance himself from them, began releasing their secret identities, and almost as many were killed by lynching as by the explosion in Stamford. When Cap refused to support the Superhuman Registration Act aboard the S. One supporter, however, was not yet public: Spider-Man was reluctant to reveal his identity.
The Human Torch (Johnny Storm) was beaten into a coma outside a Manhattan nightclub. He prepared to liquidate his assets and flee the country with his wife and aunt to avoid revealing his identity and putting them in jeopardy.
The 198 have since chafed at the constant O*N*E surveillance, as well as their inability to leave the school grounds without being tracked by monitoring chips.
When it was discovered the chips could also deliver a powerful electric discharge to assure the 198 could be subdued, they rioted.