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The end-Frasnian extinction (the largest) about 375 million years ago.
The about 365 million years ago during the Famennian.
All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, "When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled.
Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to distant futurity." (Charles Darwin) From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said (1903) that the Pithecoiden (monkey) theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys.
starting about 2.500,000,000 years ago, sedimentary rocks affected by higher amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere, appear red, as though rusted. Fossils include earliest fish, but of types very different from modern ones. signs of the "tentative presence" of plants on land.
Mesoproterozoic from 1,600,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 years ago. Particular importance attaches to occurred around 1,300,000,000 years ago during the late Mesoproterzoic era, after the earth's transition to a more highly oxygenated atmosphere with an ozone screen. Deposits that made Westmorland Green slate formed around 450 million years ago. About 50 million years later, the material was altered by heat and pressure (metamorphosed) to slate, during mountain-building. After many more millions of years, they resembled patches of moss a few centimeters high.
It mentions the following periods to indicate how long ago coal was formed: Carboniferous followed by 359,200,000 - 326,400,000 years ago Dinantian series or epoch from the Lower Carboniferous system in Europe 326,400,000 to 313,400,000 years ago Namurian stage in the regional stratigraphy of northwest Europe are found - Silicious Grit, providing stone for building and millstones - Shale - then lime-stone and toadstone alternately.
cells with nuclei certainly existed by 1,200,000,000 years ago. In 1835, William Kirby in On Power of God in Creation of Animals 2. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart.
All plants were responsible for the transformation, but Archaeopteris was important because it made up 90 percent of the forests during the last 15 million years when these changes accelerated" ...
"It was the first plant to produce an extensive root system, so had a profound impact on soil chemistry".
Galena can contain minor amounts of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, silver, and zinc See and stalagmites.
Encountering impermeable strata (such as toadstone) it forms underground lakes in the limestone which overflow to the surface as natural springs (a resurgence).